Magnesium & Heart Health

Discover magnesium’s essential roles in heart health, and why low magnesium increases risk of heart disease. [1]

  1. Magnesium fuels the heart.
  2. Magnesium protects our heart’s pump & regulates acidity.
  3. Magnesium prevents heart attacks.
  4. Magnesium provides elasticity for our heart and blood vessels.
  5. Magnesium & atherosclerosis (clarifying cholesterol confusion).
  6. Magnesium stops calcification of our heart & arteries.
  7. Solutions to restore magnesium & promote a healthier heart.
Learn More

Magnesium & Heart Health

Discover magnesium’s essential roles in heart health, and why low magnesium increases risk of heart disease. [1]

  1. Magnesium fuels the heart.
  2. Magnesium protects our heart’s pump & regulates acidity.
  3. Magnesium prevents heart attacks.
  4. Magnesium provides elasticity for our heart and blood vessels.
  5. Magnesium & atherosclerosis (clarifying cholesterol confusion).
  6. Magnesium stops calcification of our heart & arteries.
  7. Solutions to restore magnesium & promote a healthier heart.
Let's Dive In!

1. Magnesium fuels the heart:

2. Magnesium protects our heart’s pump & regulates acidity:

3. Magnesium prevents heart attacks:

4. Magnesium provides elasticity for our heart and blood vessels:

5. Magnesium & atherosclerosis (clarifying cholesterol confusion):

6. Magnesium stops calcification of our heart & arteries:

7. Solutions to restore magnesium & promote a healthier heart:

++ Scientific References

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  2. Management of Fibromyalgia: Rationale for the Use of Magnesium and Malic Acid. www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/13590849208997961
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  7. Magnesium metabolism. A review with special reference to the relationship between intracellular content and serum levels.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3056314
  8. Calcium inhibition of the ATP in equilibrium with [32P]Pi exchange and of net ATP synthesis catalyzed by bovine submitochondrial particles. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2145974
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  10. Abstract 1199: Low Serum Magnesium Concentrations Predict Increase in Left Ventricular Mass Over Five Years Independently of Common Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Study of Health in Pomerania http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/118/Suppl_18/S_1084.2.abstract
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  13. Magnesium in congestive heart failure. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15692155
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  33. Effects of magnesium on inactivation of the voltage-gated calcium current in cardiac myocytes. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2559140
  34. Magnesium Inhibits Norepinephrine Release by Blocking N-Type Calcium Channels at Peripheral Sympathetic Nerve Endings. http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/44/6/897.full
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  41. Magnesium affects excitation, conduction, and contraction of isolated mammalian cardiac muscle. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1510159
  42. Magnesium and the Hem: Antiarrhythmic Therapy with Magnesium. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/clc.4960161105/pdf
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  47. Magnesium, Myocardial Ischaemia and Arrhythmias. The Role of Magnesium in Myocardial Infarction. http://link.springer.com/article/10.2165/00003495-198937010-00001
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  50. Magnesium administration and dysrhythmias after cardiac surgery. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1404796
  51. Efficacy of intravenous magnesium in acute myocardial infarction in reducing arrhythmias and mortality. Meta-analysis of magnesium in acute myocardial infarction. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1387591
  52. Long-term outcome after intravenous magnesium sulphate in suspected acute myocardial infarction: the second Leicester Intravenous Magnesium Intervention Trial (LIMIT-2). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7908076
  53. Magnesium therapy of cardiac arrhythmias in critical-care medicine. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2693848
  54. Bidentate RNA-magnesium clamps: on the origin of the special role of magnesium in RNA folding.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21173199
  55. A thermodynamic framework for the magnesium-dependent folding of RNA. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12717727
  56. RNA-magnesium-protein interactions in large ribosomal subunit.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22712611
  57. A recurrent magnesium-binding motif provides a framework for the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19279186
  58. Differentiation of oxytalan fibres from elastic fibres with reagents for detection of magnesium.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1416069
  59. Relationship between magnesium and elastic fibres.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8292494
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  68. Total cholesterol and risk of mortality in the oldest old. http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(97)04430-9/abstract
  69. High intake of cholesterol results in less atherogenic low-density lipoprotein particles in men and women independent of response classification. http://www.metabolismjournal.com/article/S0026-0495(04)00070-8/abstract
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  76. Provitamin D3 in tissues and the conversion of cholesterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol in vivo. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1197779/?page=1
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  82. Focal demyelination in Alzheimer’s disease and transgenic mouse models. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20198482
  83. The absence of myelin basic protein promotes neuroinflammation and reduces amyloid β-protein accumulation in Tg-5xFAD mice.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24188129
  84. High total cholesterol levels in late life associated with a reduced risk of dementia. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15911792
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  93. Role of magnesium in glutathione metabolism of rat erythrocytes. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7062145
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  119. Magnesium prevents phosphate-induced calcification in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells.   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23229924
  120. Magnesium inhibits Wnt/β-catenin activity and reverses the osteogenic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24586847
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+++ Scientific References - Magnesium Deficiency & Cardiovascular Disease

General

  1. Seelig M S and Heggtveit H A 1974 Magnesium interrelationships in ischemic heart disease: a review. Am J Clin Nutr 27, 59-79.
  2. Seelig M S 1980 Magnesium Deficiency in the Pathogenesis of Disease, Early Roots of Cardiovascular,Skeletal, and Renal Abnormalities. Plenum Medical Book Co, New York & London.
  3. Marier J R 1982 Quantitative Factors Regarding Magnesium Status in the Modern-Day World. Magnesium 1, 3-15.
  4. Seelig M S and Rosanoff A 2003 The Magnesium Factor. Avery Penguin Group, New York. 376 p.
  5. Altura B M and Altura B T 2007 Magnesium:  Forgotten Mineral in Cardiovascular Biology and Atherogenesis. In New Perspectives in Magnesium Research, Nutrition and Health, Eds Y Nishizawa, H Morii and J Durlach. pp 239-260. Springer-Verlag, London.

Heart Disease:

  1. Altura B M 1988 Ischemic heart disease and magnesium. Magnesium 7, 57-67.
  2. Chakraborti S, Chakraborti T, Mandal M, Mandal A, Das S and Ghosh S 2002 Protective role of magnesium in cardiovascular diseases: a review. Molecular and cellular biochemistry 238, 163-179.
  3. Dittrich S, Germanakis J, Dahnert I, Stiller B, Dittrich H, Vogel M and Lange P E 2003 Randomised trial on the influence of continuous magnesium infusion on arrhythmias following cardiopulmonary bypass surgery for congenital heart disease. Intensive Care Med 29, 1141-1144.
  4. Franz K B and Bailey S M 2004 Geographical variations in heart deaths and diabetes: effect of climate and a possible relationship to magnesium. J Am Coll Nutr 23, 521S-524S.
  5. Al-Delaimy W K, Rimm E B, Willett W C, Stampfer M J and Hu F B 2004 Magnesium intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men. J Am Coll Nutr 23, 63-70.
  6. Iezhitsa I N 2005 Potassium and magnesium depletions in congestive heart failure–pathophysiology, consequences and replenishment. Clin Calcium 15, 123-133.
  7. Miller S, Crystal E, Garfinkle M, Lau C, Lashevsky I and Connolly S J 2005 Effects of magnesium on atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis. Heart 91, 618-623.
  8. Yokoyama A, Kikuchi K and Kawamura Y 2005 [Heart rate variability, arrhythmia and magnesium in hemodialysis patients]. Clin Calcium 15, 226-232.
  9. Ueshima K 2005 Magnesium and ischemic heart disease: a review of epidemiological, experimental, and clinical evidences. Magnes Res 18, 275-284.
  10. Ohtsuka S and Yamaguchi I 2005 [Magnesium in congestive heart failure]. Clin Calcium 15, 181-186.
  11. Pokan R, Hofmann P, von Duvillard S P, Smekal G, Wonisch M, Lettner K, Schmid P, Shechter M, Silver B and Bachl N 2006 Oral magnesium therapy, exercise heart rate, exercise tolerance, and myocardial function in coronary artery disease patients. Br J Sports Med 40, 773-778.
  12. Leone N, Courbon D, Ducimetiere P and Zureik M 2006 Zinc, copper, and magnesium and risks for all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality. Epidemiology 17, 308-314.
  13. Alon I, Gorelik O, Berman S, Almoznino-Sarafian D, Shteinshnaider M, Weissgarten J, Modai D and Cohen N 2006 Intracellular magnesium in elderly patients with heart failure: effects of diabetes and renal dysfunction. J Trace Elem Med Biol 20, 221-226.
  14. Fuentes J C, Salmon A A and Silver M A 2006 Acute and chronic oral magnesium supplementation: effects on endothelial function, exercise capacity, and quality of life in patients with symptomatic heart failure. Congest Heart Fail 12, 9-13.
  15. Gao X, Peng L, Adhikari C M, Lin J and Zuo Z 2007 Spironolactone reduced arrhythmia and maintained magnesium homeostasis in patients with congestive heart failure. J Card Fail 13, 170-177.
  16. Nielsen F H, Milne D B, Klevay L M, Gallagher S and Johnson L 2007 Dietary magnesium deficiency induces heart rhythm changes, impairs glucose tolerance, and decreases serum cholesterol in post menopausal women. J Am Coll Nutr 26, 121-132.
  17. Adamopoulos C, Pitt B, Sui X, Love T E, Zannad F and Ahmed A 2009 Low serum magnesium and cardiovascular mortality in chronic heart failure: a propensity-matched study. Int J Cardiol 136, 270-277.
  18. Almoznino-Sarafian D, Sarafian G, Berman S, Shteinshnaider M, Tzur I, Cohen N and Gorelik O 2009 Magnesium administration may improve heart rate variability in patients with heart failure. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 19, 641-645.
  19. Stepura O B and Martynow A I 2009 Magnesium orotate in severe congestive heart failure (MACH). Int J Cardiol 131, 293-295.
  20. Mathers T W and Beckstrand R L 2009 Oral magnesium supplementation in adults with coronary heart disease or coronary heart disease risk. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 21, 651-657.
  21. Khan A M, Sullivan L, McCabe E, Levy D, Vasan R S and Wang T J 2010 Lack of association between serum magnesium and the risks of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Am Heart J 160, 715-720.  Note:  compare negative results in abstract with significant (p = 0.04) for age & sex adjusted results in Table III.  AR
  22. Peacock J M, Ohira T, Post W, Sotoodehnia N, Rosamond W and Folsom A R 2010 Serum magnesium and risk of sudden cardiac death in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am Heart J 160, 464-470.
  23. Chiuve S E, Korngold E C, Januzzi J L, Jr., Gantzer M L and Albert C M 2011 Plasma and dietary magnesium and risk of sudden cardiac death in women. Am J Clin Nutr 93, 253-260.
  24. Zhang, W., H. Iso, et al. (2012). “Associations of dietary magnesium intake with mortality from cardiovascular disease: the JACC study.” Atherosclerosis 221(2): 587-95.
  25. Joosten, M. M., Gansevoort, R. T., Mukamal, K. J., Kootstra-Ros, J. E., Feskens, E. J., Geleijnse, J. M., . . . Group, P. S. (2013). Response to Lowered magnesium in hypertension. Hypertension, 62(4), e20.
  26. Khan, A. M., Sullivan, L., McCabe, E., Levy, D., Vasan, R. S., & Wang, T. J. (2010). Lack of association between serum magnesium and the risks of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Am Heart J, 160(4), 715-720.
  27. Misialek, J. R., Lopez, F. L., Lutsey, P. L., Huxley, R. R., Peacock, J. M., Chen, L. Y., . . . Alonso, A. (2013). Serum and dietary magnesium and incidence of atrial fibrillation in whites and in African Americans–Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society, 77(2), 323-329.
  28. Abbott, R. D., Ando, F., Masaki, K. H., Tung, K. H., Rodriguez, B. L., Petrovitch, H., . . . Curb, J. D. (2003). Dietary magnesium intake and the future risk of coronary heart disease (the Honolulu Heart Program). Am J Cardiol, 92(6), 665-669.
  29. Liao, F., Folsom, A. R., & Brancati, F. L. (1998). Is low magnesium concentration a risk factor for coronary heart disease? The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am Heart J, 136(3), 480-490.
  30. Larsson, S. C. (2013). Urinary magnesium excretion as a marker of heart disease risk. Am J Clin Nutr, 97(6), 1159-1160.
  31. Del Gobbo, L. C., Imamura, F., Wu, J. H., de Oliveira Otto, M. C., Chiuve, S. E., & Mozaffarian, D. (2013). Circulating and dietary magnesium and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr.
  32. Qu, X., Jin, F., Hao, Y., Li, H., Tang, T., Wang, H., . . . Dai, K. (2013). Magnesium and the risk of cardiovascular events: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. PLoS One, 8(3), e57720.
  33. Nie, Z. L., Wang, Z. M., Zhou, B., Tang, Z. P., & Wang, S. K. (2013). Magnesium intake and incidence of stroke: Meta-analysis of cohort studies. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 23(3), 169-176.
  34. Alghamdi, A. A., Al-Radi, O. O., & Latter, D. A. (2005). Intravenous magnesium for prevention of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Card Surg, 20(3), 293-299.
  35. Shiga, T., Wajima, Z., Inoue, T., & Ogawa, R. (2004). Magnesium prophylaxis for arrhythmias after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Med, 117(5), 325-333.
  36. Dibaba, D. T., Xun, P., & He, K. (2014). Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with serum C-reactive protein levels: meta-analysis and systematic review. Eur J Clin Nutr, 68(8), 971.
  37. Shah, N. C., Liu, J. P., Iqbal, J., Hussain, M., Jiang, X. C., Li, Z., . . . Altura, B. M. (2011). Mg deficiency results in modulation of serum lipids, glutathione, and NO synthase isozyme activation in cardiovascular tissues: relevance to de novo synthesis of ceramide, serum Mg and atherogenesis. Int J Clin Exp Med, 4(2), 103-118.
  38. King, J. L., Miller, R. J., Blue, J. P., Jr., O’Brien, W. D., Jr., & Erdman, J. W., Jr. (2009). Inadequate dietary magnesium intake increases atherosclerotic plaque development in rabbits. Nutr Res, 29(5), 343-349.
  39. Maier, J. A. (2012). Endothelial cells and magnesium: implications in atherosclerosis. Clin Sci (Lond), 122(9), 397-407.
  40. Vierling, W., Liebscher, D. H., Micke, O., von Ehrlich, B., & Kisters, K. (2013). [Magnesium deficiency and therapy in cardiac arrhythmias: recommendations of the German Society for Magnesium Research]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr, 138(22), 1165-1171.

Myocardial Infarction:

  1. Afridi, H. I., Kazi, T. G., Kazi, N., Kandhro, G. A., Baig, J. A., Shah, A. Q., . . . Shah, F. (2010). Potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sodium levels in biological samples of Pakistani myocardial infarction patients at different stages as related to controls. Clin Lab, 56(9-10), 427-439.
  2. Parsons, R. S., Butler, T. C., & Sellars, E. P. (1959). The treatment of coronary artery disease. Med Proc, 5, 487-498.
  3. Malkiel-Shapiro, B. (1958). Further observations on parenteral magnesium sulphate therapy in coronary heart disease: a clinical appraisal. S Afr Med J, 32(51), 1211-1215.
  4. Malkiel-Shapiro, B., Bershon, I., & Terner, P. E. (1956). Parenteral magnesium sulphate therapy in coronary heart disease. A preliminary report on its clinical and laboratory aspects. Med Proc, 2, 455-462.
  5. Antman, E. M. (2002). Magnesium in Coronaries.  The MAGIC Study. Paper presented at the XXIVth Congress of the European Society of Cardiology, www.medscape.com/viewarticle/441094.
  6. Shechter, M., Hod, H., Couraqui, P., Kaplinsky, & Rabinowitz, B. (1995). Magnesium therapy in acute myocardial infarction when patients are not candidates for thrombolytic therapy. Am J Cardiol, 75, 321-323.
  7. ISIS-4: a randomised factorial trial assessing early oral captopril, oral mononitrate, and intravenous magnesium sulphate in 58,050 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. ISIS-4 (Fourth International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. (1995). Lancet, 345(8951), 669-685.
  8. Woods, K. L., Fletcher, S., Roffe, C., & Haider, Y. (1992). Intravenous magnesium sulphate in suspected acute myocardial infarction: results of the second Leicester Intravenous Magnesium Intervention Trial (LIMIT-2). Lancet, 339(8809), 1553-1558.
  9. Shechter, M., Hod, H., Marks, N., Behar, S., Kaplinsky, E., & Rabinowitz, B. (1990). Beneficial effect of magnesium sulfate in acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol, 66, 271-274.
  10. Feldstedt, M., Boesgaard, S., Bouchelouche, P., Svenningsen, A., Brooks, L., Lech, Y., . . . Godtfredsen, J. (1991). Magnesium substitution in acute ischaemic heart syndromes. Eur Heart J, 12(11), 1215-1218.
  11. Gyamlani, G., Parikh, C., & Kulkarni, A. G. (2000). Benefits of magnesium in acute myocardial infarction: timing is crucial. Am Heart J, 139(4), 703.
  12. Horner, S. M. (1992). Efficacy of intravenous magnesium in acute myocardial infarction in reducing arrhythmias and mortality. Meta-analysis of magnesium in acute myocardial infarction. Circulation, 86, 774-779.
  13. Friedman, H. S. (1990). Magnesium therapy of angina pectoris, myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure. Magnes Trace Elem, 9, 318.
  14. Gaby, A. R. (2010). Nutritional treatments for acute myocardial infarction. Altern Med Rev, 15(2), 113-123.
  15. Antman, E. M. (1995b). Magnesium in acute MI. Timing is critical. Circulation, 92(9), 2367-2372.
  16. Teo, K. K., & Yusuf, S. (1993). Role of magnesium in reducing mortality in acute myocardial infarction. A review
    of the evidence. Drugs, 46(3), 347-359.

Cardiovascular Death - Mortality:

  1. Chiuve, S. E., Sun, Q., Curhan, G. C., Taylor, E. N., Spiegelman, D., Willett, W. C., . . . Albert, C. M. (2013). Dietary and plasma magnesium and risk of coronary heart disease among women. J Am Heart Assoc, 2(2), e000114.
  2. Zhang, W., Iso, H., Ohira, T., Date, C., & Tamakoshi, A. (2012). Associations of dietary magnesium intake with mortality from cardiovascular disease: the JACC study. Atherosclerosis, 221(2), 587-595.
  3. Reffelmann, T., Ittermann, T., Dorr, M., Volzke, H., Reinthaler, M., Petersmann, A., & Felix, S. B. (2011). Low serum magnesium concentrations predict cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Atherosclerosis, 219(1), 280-284.
  4. Chiuve, S. E., Korngold, E. C., Januzzi, J. L., Jr., Gantzer, M. L., & Albert, C. M. (2011). Plasma and dietary magnesium and risk of sudden cardiac death in women. Am J Clin Nutr, 93(2), 253-260.
  5. Peacock, J. M., Ohira, T., Post, W., Sotoodehnia, N., Rosamond, W., & Folsom, A. R. (2010). Serum magnesium and risk of sudden cardiac death in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am Heart J, 160(3), 464-470.
  6. Khan, A. M., Sullivan, L., McCabe, E., Levy, D., Vasan, R. S., & Wang, T. J. (2010). Lack of association between serum magnesium and the risks of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Am Heart J, 160(4), 715-720.
  7. Ford, E. S. (1999). Serum magnesium and ischaemic heart disease: findings from a national sample of US adults. Int J Epidemiol, 28(4), 645-651.

Stroke:

  1. Sun X, Mei Y and Tong E 2000 Effect of magnesium on nitric oxide synthase of neurons in cortex during early period of cerebral ischemia. J Tongji Med Univ 20, 13-15, 42.
  2. Massey L K 2001 Dairy food consumption, blood pressure and stroke. J Nutr 131, 1875-1878.
  3. Muir K W 2001 Magnesium for neuroprotection in ischaemic stroke: rationale for use and evidence of effectiveness. CNS Drugs 15, 921-930.
  4. Amighi J, Sabeti S, Schlager O, Mlekusch W, Exner M, Lalouschek W, Ahmadi R, Minar E and Schillinger M 2004 Low serum magnesium predicts neurological events in patients with advanced atherosclerosis. Stroke 35, 22-27.
  5. Demougeot C, Bobillier-Chaumont S, Mossiat C, Marie C and Berthelot A 2004 Effect of diets with different magnesium content in ischemic stroke rats. Neurosci Lett 362, 17-20.
  6. Monarca S, Donato F, Zerbini I, Calderon R L and Craun G F 2006 Review of epidemiological studies on drinking water hardness and cardiovascular diseases. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 13, 495-506.
  7. Cojocaru I M, Cojocaru M, Burcin C and Atanasiu N A 2007 Serum magnesium in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Rom J Intern Med 45, 269-273.
  8. Aslanyan S, Weir C J, Muir K W and Lees K R 2007 Magnesium for treatment of acute lacunar stroke syndromes: further analysis of the IMAGES trial. Stroke 38, 1269-1273.
  9. Champagne C M 2008 Magnesium in hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and other conditions: a review. Nutr Clin Pract 23, 142-151.
  10. Larsson S C, Virtanen M J, Mars M, Mannisto S, Pietinen P, Albanes D and Virtamo J 2008 Magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium intakes and risk of stroke in male smokers. Arch Intern Med 168, 459-465.
  11. Ohira T, Peacock J M, Iso H, Chambless L E, Rosamond W D and Folsom A R 2009 Serum and dietary magnesium and risk of ischemic stroke: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Am J Epidemiol 169, 1437-1444.
  12. Bayir A, Ak A, Kara H and Sahin T K 2009 Serum and cerebrospinal fluid magnesium levels, Glasgow Coma Scores, and in-hospital mortality in patients with acute stroke. Biol Trace Elem Res 130, 7-12.
  13. Larsson S C, Mannisto S, Virtanen M J, Kontto J, Albanes D and Virtamo J 2009 Dietary fiber and fiber-rich food intake in relation to risk of stroke in male smokers. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 1016-1024.
  14. Larsson S C, Virtamo J and Wolk A 2011 Potassium, calcium, and magnesium intakes and risk of stroke in women. Am J Epidemiol 174, 35-43.
  15. Larsson S C, Orsini N and Wolk A 2012 Dietary magnesium intake and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr 95, 362-366.
  16. Zhang, W., H. Iso, et al. (2012). “Associations of dietary magnesium intake with mortality from cardiovascular disease: the JACC study.” Atherosclerosis 221(2): 587-95.

Cardiovascular Risk Factors:

GENERAL:

  1. Huang, J. H., Tsai, L. C., Chang, Y. C., & Cheng, F. C. (2014). High or low calcium intake increases cardiovascular disease risks in older patients with type 2 diabetes. Cardiovasc Diabetol, 13, 120.
  2. Corica, F., Corsonello, A., Ientile, R., Cucinotta, D., Di Benedetto, A., Perticone, F., . . . Barbagallo, M. (2006). Serum ionized magnesium levels in relation to metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients. J Am Coll Nutr, 25(3), 210-215.
  3. Corica, F., Allegra, A., Di Benedetto, A., Giacobbe, M. S., Romano, G., Cucinotta, D., . . . Ceruso, D. (1994). Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on plasma lipid concentrations in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Magnes Res, 7(1), 43-47.
  4. Simental-Mendia, L. E., Rodriguez-Moran, M., & Guerrero-Romero, F. (2014). Oral magnesium supplementation decreases C-reactive protein levels in subjects with prediabetes and hypomagnesemia: a clinical randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Arch Med Res, 45(4), 325-330.
  5. Olatunji, L. A., & Soladoye, A. O. (2007). Effect of increased magnesium intake on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and oxidative stress in alloxan-diabetic rats. Afr J Med Med Sci, 36(2), 155-161.
  6. Shechter, M. (2010). Magnesium and cardiovascular system. Magnes Res, 23(2), 60-72.
  7. Seelig, M. S., & Rosanoff, A. (2003). The Magnesium Factor (1st ed.). New York: Avery Penguin Group.

PVD, PAD, Raynaud’s:

  1. Amighi, J., Sabeti, S., Schlager, O., Mlekusch, W., Exner, M., Lalouschek, W., . . . Schillinger, M. (2004). Low serum magnesium predicts neurological events in patients with advanced atherosclerosis. Stroke, 35(1), 22-27.
  2. Ishimura, E., Okuno, S., Kitatani, K., Tsuchida, T., Yamakawa, T., Shioi, A., . . . Nishizawa, Y. (2007). Significant association between the presence of peripheral vascular calcification and lower serum magnesium in hemodialysis patients. Clin Nephrol, 68(4), 222-227.
  3. Myrdal, U., Leppert, J., Edvinsson, L., Ekman, R., Hedner, T., Nilsson, H., & Ringqvist, I. (1994). Magnesium sulphate infusion decreases circulating calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in women with primary Raynaud’s phenomenon. Clin Physiol, 14(5), 539-546.
  4. Cohen, J. S. (2002). High-dose oral magnesium treatment of chronic, intractable erythromelalgia. Ann Pharmacother, 36(2), 255-260.

Obesity:

  1. Resnick L M 1992 Cellular ions in hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes: a unifying theme. J Am Soc Nephrol 3, S78-85.
  2. Izmozherova N V, Popov A A, Fominykh M I, Andreev A N, Striukova O, Tagil’tseva N V and Gavrilova E I 2007 [Magnesium deficit in climacteric women]. Klin Med (Mosk) 85, 62-64.
  3. Champagne C M 2008 Magnesium in hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and other conditions: a review. Nutr Clin Pract 23, 142-151.
  4. Johansson H E, Zethelius B, Ohrvall M, Sundbom M and Haenni A 2009 Serum magnesium status after gastric bypass surgery in obesity. Obes Surg 19, 1250-1255.

Central (Abdominal) Obesity:

  1. Sowers J R and Draznin B 1998 Insulin, cation metabolism and insulin resistance. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 9, 223-233.
  2. Corica F, Corsonello A, Ientile R, Cucinotta D, Di Benedetto A, Perticone F, Dominguez L J and Barbagallo M 2006 Serum ionized magnesium levels in relation to metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients. J Am Coll Nutr 25, 210-215.
  3. Katcher H I, Legro R S, Kunselman A R, Gillies P J, Demers L M, Bagshaw D M and Kris-Etherton P M 2008 The effects of a whole grain-enriched hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women with metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 79-90.
  4. Johansson H E, Zethelius B, Ohrvall M, Sundbom M and Haenni A 2009 Serum magnesium status after gastric bypass surgery in obesity. Obes Surg 19, 1250-1255.

High Blood Triglycerides:

  1. Rasmussen H S 1989 Clinical intervention studies on magnesium in myocardial infarction. Magnesium 8, 316-325.
  2. Djurhuus M S, Henriksen J E, Klitgaard N A, Blaabjerg O, Thye-Ronn P, Altura B M, Altura B T and Beck-Nielsen H 1999 Effect of moderate improvement in metabolic control on magnesium and lipid concentrations in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 22, 546-554.
  3. Singh R B, Rastogi S S, Sharma V K, Saharia R B and Kulshretha S K 1990 Can dietary magnesium modulate lipoprotein metabolism? Magnes Trace Elem 9, 255-264.
  4. Corica F, Corsonello A, Ientile R, Cucinotta D, Di Benedetto A, Perticone F, Dominguez L J and Barbagallo M 2006 Serum ionized magnesium levels in relation to metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients. J Am Coll Nutr 25, 210-215.
  5. Olatunji L A and Soladoye A O 2007 Effect of increased magnesium intake on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and oxidative stress in alloxan-diabetic rats. Afr J Med Med Sci 36, 155-161.

Low HDL Cholesterol (Low “good” cholesterol):

  1. Davis W H, Leary W P, Reyes A J and Olhaberry J V 1984 Monotherapy with magnesium increases abnormally low high density lipopritein cholesterol:  a clinical assay. Curr Therap Res 36, 341-344.
  2. Rasmussen H S, Aurup P, Goldstein K, McNair P, Mortensen P B, Larsen O G and Lawaetz H 1989 Influence of magnesium substitution therapy on blood lipid composition in patients with ischemic heart disease. A double-blind, placebo controlled study. Arch Intern Med 149, 1050-1053.
  3. Corica F, Allegra A, Di Benedetto A, Giacobbe M S, Romano G, Cucinotta D, Buemi M and Ceruso D 1994 Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on plasma lipid concentrations in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Magnes Res 7, 43-47.
  4. Sowers J R and Draznin B 1998 Insulin, cation metabolism and insulin resistance. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 9, 223-233.
  5. Djurhuus M S, Henriksen J E, Klitgaard N A, Blaabjerg O, Thye-Ronn P, Altura B M, Altura B T and Beck-Nielsen H 1999 Effect of moderate improvement in metabolic control on magnesium and lipid concentrations in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 22, 546-554.
  6. Guerrero-Romero F and Rodriguez-Moran M 2000 Hypomagnesemia is linked to low serum HDL-cholesterol irrespective of serum glucose values. Journal of diabetes and its complications 14, 272-276.
  7. Olatunji L A and Soladoye A O 2007 Effect of increased magnesium intake on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and oxidative stress in alloxan-diabetic rats. Afr J Med Med Sci 36, 155-161.

High Blood Pressure:

  1. Resnick L M 1992 Cellular calcium and magnesium metabolism in the pathophysiology and treatment of hypertension and related metabolic disorders. Am J Med 93, 11S-20S..
  2. Pham P C, Pham P M, Pham S V, Miller J M and Pham P T 2007 Hypomagnesemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2, 366-373.
  3. Barbagallo M, Dominguez L J and Resnick L M 2007 Magnesium metabolism in hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Ther 14, 375-385.
  4. Touyz R M 2008 Transient receptor potential melastatin 6 and 7 channels, magnesium transport, and vascular biology: implications in hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 294, H1103-1118.
  5. Champagne C M 2008 Magnesium in hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and other conditions: a review. Nutr Clin Pract 23, 142-151.
  6. Johansson H E, Zethelius B, Ohrvall M, Sundbom M and Haenni A 2009 Serum magnesium status after gastric bypass surgery in obesity. Obes Surg 19, 1250-1255.
  7. Rosanoff A 2010 Magnesium supplements may enhance the effect of antihypertensive medications in stage 1 hypertensive subjects. Magnes Res 23, 27-40.