Magnesium & Mental Health

Magnesium & Mental Health

Learn how the major functions of your brain & nerves need magnesium[1], and why magnesium deficiency is linked to mental & neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Magnesium fuels our brain and nerves.
  2. Magnesium develops our brain and nerves.
  3. Magnesium develops our skills, intelligence and memory.
  4. Magnesium protects our nerves and brain cells.
  5. Magnesium helps create new brain cells.
  6. Magnesium facilitates nerve signalling.
  7. Magnesium deficiency can contribute to mental and nervous system diseases (depression, Alzheimer’s, Parkinsons, Multiple Sclerosis, ADHD, etc.).
  8. Solutions to restore magnesium & promote mental health.
Learn More

1. Magnesium fuels our brain and nerves:

2. Magnesium develops our brain and nerves:

3. Magnesium develops our skills, intelligence and memory:

4. Magnesium protects our nerves and brain cells:

5. Magnesium helps create new brain cells:

6. Magnesium facilitates nerve signalling:

7. Magnesium deficiency can contribute to mental and nervous system diseases (depression, Alzheimer’s, Parkinsons, Multiple Sclerosis, ADHD, etc.):

8. Solutions to restore magnesium & promote mental health:

While restoring and maintaining healthy magnesium levels may not resolve all mental and neurodegenerative health conditions on its own, based on magnesium’s essential roles in brain and nerve function, it is still a major requirement for optimal mental health.  A complete magnesium restoration protocol can include:

  • Eating a magnesium-smart diet. Learn more.
  • Reducing the environmental, psychological and physical stressors that deplete magnesium from your body. Learn more.
  • Using a quality trans-dermal magnesium supplement to restore whole-body magnesium levels. Consider combining this with an oral magnesium-taurate or a magnesium l-threonate supplement which are both helpful for mental health. Learn more.

++ Scientific References

  1. Magnesium in the Central Nervous System
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  4. ATP production: Oxidative phosphorylation
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  6. Bidentate RNA-magnesium clamps: on the origin of the special role of magnesium in RNA folding.
  7. A thermodynamic framework for the magnesium-dependent folding of RNA.
  8. RNA-magnesium-protein interactions in large ribosomal subunit.
  9. A recurrent magnesium-binding motif provides a framework for the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center.
  10. Magnesium improves the beta-cell function to compensate variation of insulin sensitivity: double-blind, randomized clinical trial.(While magnesium’s role in the beta cell’s actual release of insulin is less established than its role in the beta cells creating insulin, this study makes ground on the overall impact of magnesium on beta cells).
  11. Intracellular magnesium and insulin resistance.
  12. Magnesium in Human Health and Disease.  or  see this excerpt:
  13. Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects with insulin resistance. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial.
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  18. Sustained activation of insulin receptors internalized in GLUT4 vesicles of insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle.
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  21. Thiamine and magnesium deficiencies: keys to disease.
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  25. Critical role of magnesium ions in DNA polymerase beta’s closing and active site assembly.
  26. Protein synthesis is required for the enhancement of long-term potentiation and long-term memory by spaced training.
  27. NMDA Receptor-Dependent Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression (LTP/LTD)
  28. Activation Mechanisms of the NMDA Receptor
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  30. The mechanism of magnesium block of NMDA receptors
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  32. Permeation and block of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor channels by divalent cations in mouse cultured central neurones.
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  35. Memory consolidation during sleep: interactive effects of sleep stages and HPA regulation.
  36. Consider Magnesium Homeostasis: III: Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Drug Toxicity.
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  38. Hormonal regulation of cytochrome P450 enzymes, cholesterol side-chain cleavage and 17 alpha-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase in Leydig cells.
  39. DHEA administration increases rapid eye movement sleep and EEG power in the sigma frequency range.
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  43. Midlife decline in declarative memory consolidation is correlated with a decline in slow wave sleep.
  44. The whats and whens of sleep-dependent memory consolidation.
  45. Oral Mg(2+) supplementation reverses age-related neuroendocrine and sleep EEG changes in humans.
  46. Iron, Free Radicals, and Oxidative Injury.
  47. Ferrotoxic Disease: The Next Great Public Health Challenge.
  48. Reconstitution of ceruloplasmin by the Cu(I)-glutathione complex. Evidence for a role of Mg2+ and ATP.
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  50. Multi-Copper Oxidases and Human Iron Metabolism.
  51. Glutathione Biosynthesis.
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  53. Role of magnesium in glutathione metabolism of rat erythrocytes.
  54. Effects of Glutathione on Red Blood Cell Intracellular Magnesium
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  56. Magnesium deprivation decreases cellular reduced glutathione and causes oxidative neuronal death in murine cortical cultures.
  57. Magnesium Intake in Relation to Systemic Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and the Incidence of Diabetes
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  63. Hypomagnesemia is Associated with Increased Mortality among Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.
  64. Magnesium supplement promotes sciatic nerve regeneration and down-regulates inflammatory response.
  65. Does your brain produce new cells?
  66. Adult neurogenesis produces a large pool of new granule cells in the dentate gyrus.
  67. Short-term and long-term survival of new neurons in the rat dentate gyrus.
  68. Murine Features of Neurogenesis in the Human Hippocampus across the Lifespan from 0 to 100 Years
  69. NMDA receptor function, memory, and brain aging
  70. High cholesterol level is essential for myelin membrane growth
  71. Multiple Sclerosis: A Coordinated Immunological Attack against Myelin in the Central Nervous System
  72. Mevalonate pathway
  73. Comparison of Mechanism and Functional Effects of Magnesium and Statin Pharmaceuticals
  74. The NMDA receptor in epilepsy
  75. Melatonin Metabolism in the Central Nervous System
  76. Anti-inflammatory actions of melatonin and its metabolites, N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) and N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK), in macrophages.
  77. Melatonin and its relation to the immune system and inflammation.
  78. Melatonin expresses powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities resulting in complete improvement of acetic-acid-induced colitis in rats.
  79. Oxidative damage in the central nervous system: protection by melatonin
  80. Melatonin and mitochondrial dysfunction in the central nervous system
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  84. Dietary factors and fluctuating levels of melatonin.
  85. Dietary magnesium deficiency decreases plasma melatonin in rats.
  86. The Effect of Melatonin, Magnesium, and Zinc on Primary Insomnia in Long-term Care Facility Residents in Italy: A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial
  87. Alzheimer’s Disease and the β-Amyloid Peptide
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  91. Scientists reveal how beta-amyloid may cause Alzheimer’s
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  93. Melatonin ameliorates amyloid beta-induced memory deficits, tau hyperphosphorylation and neurodegeneration via PI3/Akt/GSk3β pathway in the mouse hippocampus
  94. Melatonin reduces hippocampal beta-amyloid generation in rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia.
  95. Beta-amyloidolysis and glutathione in Alzheimer’s disease
  96. γ-glutamylcysteine (GGC)-mediated upregulation of glutathione levels can ameliorate toxicity of natural beta-amyloid oligomers in primary adult human neurons
  97. Elevation of glutathione as a therapeutic strategy in Alzheimer disease
  98. Beneficial effects of melatonin in experimental models of Alzheimer disease
  99. Dementias: the role of magnesium deficiency and an hypothesis concerning the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease.
  100. Magnesium depletion and pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease
  101. Altered ionized magnesium levels in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease.
  102. Disturbances of magnesium concentrations in various brain areas in Alzheimer’s disease.
  103. Magnesium Status in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review.
  104. Magnesium ions show promise in slowing progression of Alzheimer’s disease in mice
  105. Magnesium protects cognitive functions and synaptic plasticity in streptozotocin-induced sporadic Alzheimer’s model.
  106. Iron, brain ageing and neurodegenerative disorders.
  107. Three-dimensional tomographic imaging and characterization of iron compounds within Alzheimer’s plaque core material.
  108. Ferritin levels in the cerebrospinal fluid predict Alzheimer’s disease outcomes and are regulated by APOE.
  109. Prevalence of amyloid-beta deposition in the cerebral cortex in Parkinson’s disease.
  110. Striatal beta-amyloid deposition in Parkinson disease with dementia.\
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  112. Parkinson’s disease dementia: convergence of α-synuclein, tau and amyloid-β pathologies.
  113. Evidence for α-synuclein prions causing multiple system atrophy in humans with parkinsonism
  114. Magnesium inhibits spontaneous and iron-induced aggregation of alpha-synuclein.
  115. Parkinson’s: Neurons Destroyed By Three Simultaneous Strikes
  116. Magnesium: Nature’s physiologic calcium blocker.
  117. Magnesium: An update on physiological, clinical and analytical aspects.
  118. Extracellular magnesium and calcium blockers modulate macrophage activity.
  119. Effects of magnesium on inactivation of the voltage-gated calcium current in cardiac myocytes.
  120. Magnesium Inhibits Norepinephrine Release by Blocking N-Type Calcium Channels at Peripheral Sympathetic Nerve Endings.
  121. Magnesium Inhibition of Ryanodine-Receptor Calcium Channels: Evidence for Two Independent Mechanisms.
  122. Calcium–magnesium interactions in pancreatic acinar cells.
  123. Magnesium ion augmentation of inhibitory effects of adenosine on dopamine release in the rat striatum.
  124. Elevated brain lesion volumes in older adults who use calcium supplements: a cross-sectional clinical observational study.
  125. Genetics of iron regulation and the possible role of iron in Parkinson’s disease.
  126. Dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins and risk of Parkinson’s disease: a case–control study in Japan.
  127. Magnesium exerts both preventive and ameliorating effects in an in vitro rat Parkinson disease model involving 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) toxicity in dopaminergic neurons.
  128. The selective toxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium to dopaminergic neurons: The role of mitochondrial complex I and reactive oxygen species revisited.
  129. Multiple Sclerosis: A Coordinated Immunological Attack against Myelin in the Central Nervous System
  130. Amyloid Proteins and Their Role in Multiple Sclerosis. Considerations in the Use of Amyloid-PET Imaging
  131. Focal demyelination in Alzheimer’s disease and transgenic mouse models.
  132. The absence of myelin basic protein promotes neuroinflammation and reduces amyloid β-protein accumulation in Tg-5xFAD mice.
  133. The role of iron dysregulation in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: an Egyptian study.
  134. Major targets of iron-induced protein oxidative damage in frataxin-deficient yeasts are magnesium-binding proteins.
  135. NMDA receptors are expressed in oligodendrocytes and activated in ischaemia.
  136. Magnesium sulfate protects oligodendrocyte lineage cells in a rat cell-culture model of hypoxic-ischemic injury.
  137. Magnesium concentration in plasma and erythrocytes in MS.
  138. Comparative findings on serum IMg2+ of normal and diseased human subjects with the NOVA and KONE ISE’s for Mg2+.
  139. Magnesium concentration in brains from multiple sclerosis patients.
  140. Magnesium in depression.
  141. Aminergic Studies and Cerebrospinal Fluid Cations in Suicide.
  142. Electrolytes in blood in endogenous depression.
  143. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in affective disorder: difference between plasma and serum in relation to symptoms.
  144. Plasma and erythrocyte electrolytes in affective disorders.
  145. Evolution of blood magnesium, sodium and potassium in depressed patients followed for three months.
  146. Magnesium and depression: a systematic review.
  147. Magnesium Intake and Depression in Adults.
  148. Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment.
  149. Role of magnesium in the pathogenesis and treatment of migraine.
  150. Deficiency in serum ionized magnesium but not total magnesium in patients with migraines. Possible role of ICa2+/IMg2+ ratio.
  151. Role of magnesium in the pathogenesis and treatment of migraines.
  152. Intravenous magnesium sulphate relieves migraine attacks in patients with low serum ionized magnesium levels: a pilot study.
  153. Efficacy of intravenous magnesium sulfate in the treatment of acute migraine attacks.
  154. Why all migraine patients should be treated with magnesium.
  155. Latent tetany and anxiety, marginal magnesium deficit, and normocalcemia.
  156. Type A behavior and magnesium metabolism.
  157. Plasma magnesium levels in a population of psychiatric patients: correlations with symptoms.
  158. Magnesium deficiency alters aggressive behavior and catecholamine function.
  159. Stimulant-like effects of magnesium on aggression in mice.
  160. The Shipley Project: Treating Food Allergy to Prevent Criminal Behaviour in Community Settings.
  161. Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy Section: ADHD
  162. The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Positive response to magnesium oral loading test.
  163. Magnesium VitB6 intake reduces central nervous system hyperexcitability in children.
  164. Improvement of neurobehavioral disorders in children supplemented with magnesium-vitamin B6. I. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders.
  165. Improvement of neurobehavioral disorders in children supplemented with magnesium-vitamin B6. II. Pervasive developmental disorder-autism.
  166. [Effect of MAGNE-B6 on the clinical and biochemical manifestations of the syndrome of attention deficit and hyperactivity in children].