Magnesium & Muscles

Magnesium & Muscles

Discover magnesium's central role in all 6 major aspects of the muscular system, and how a highly active lifestyle with low magnesium can damage health.

  1. Converting fats and carbs into muscle fuel is magnesium-dependent.[1]
  2. The creatine system in all nerves and muscles is magnesium-dependent.[4,5]
  3. Muscular contraction & relaxation is magnesium-dependent.[2]
  4. The activation of our muscles via our nerves is magnesium-dependent.[3]
  5. The process of building muscle is magnesium-dependent.[1]
  6. Making testosterone is impossible without magnesium, and magnesium raises innate production of performance-enhancing hormones.[6,7]
  7. Intense exercise while magnesium-deficient can damage health.
  8. Solutions to restore magnesium & promote better performance & health.
Learn More

1. Magnesium fuels muscles:

2. Magnesium & creatine:

3. Magnesium and muscle contraction & relaxation:

4. Magnesium activates our muscles:

5. Magnesium builds & repairs muscle:

6. Magnesium, performance & hormones:

7. Exercise, magnesium deficiency & disease:

8. Solutions to restore magnesium & improve performance & health.

++ Scientific References

Video References:

v1: All visuals/digital animation/footage have been taken from Microbiotic Youtube Channel:  We thank them for their phenomenal work!


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  2. Magnesium and the regulation of muscle contraction.
  3. Magnesium in the Central Nervous System
  4. Advanced Human Nutrition. (pg 344, creatine kinase is magnesium-dependent)
  5. Magnesium-creatine supplementation effects on body water.
  6. Effects of magnesium supplementation on testosterone levels of athletes and sedentary subjects at rest and after exhaustion.
  7. The effects of magnesium supplementation on thyroid hormones of sedentars and Tae-Kwon-Do sportsperson at resting and exhaustion.
  8. New experimental and clinical data on the relationship between magnesium and sport.
  9. Magnesium and muscle performance in older persons: the InCHIANTI study.
  10. Adenosine triphosphate.
  11. Magnesium basics.
  12. The linkage between magnesium binding and RNA folding. (Insulin creation is magnesium dependent):
  13. Bidentate RNA-magnesium clamps: on the origin of the special role of magnesium in RNA folding. (Insulin creation is magnesium dependent):
  14. A thermodynamic framework for the magnesium-dependent folding of RNA. (Insulin creation is magnesium dependent):
  15. RNA-magnesium-protein interactions in large ribosomal subunit. (Insulin creation is magnesium dependent):
  16. A recurrent magnesium-binding motif provides a framework for the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center. (Insulin creation is magnesium dependent):
  17. Magnesium improves the beta-cell function to compensate variation of insulin sensitivity: double-blind, randomized clinical trial.(While magnesium’s role in the beta cell’s actual release of insulin is less established than its role in the beta cells creating insulin, this study makes ground on the overall impact of magnesium on beta cells).
  18. Separate effects of Mg2+, MgATP, and ATP4- on the kinetic mechanism for insulin receptor tyrosine kinase.
  19. Role of divalent metals in the activation and regulation of insulin receptor tyrosine kinase.
  20. Substitution Studies of the Second Divalent Metal Cation Requirement of Protein Tyrosine Kinase CSK
  21. Intracellular magnesium and insulin resistance. (Insulin’s function is magnesium dependent):
  22. Magnesium in Human Health and Disease. (Insulin’s function is magnesium dependent):  or  see this excerpt:
  23. Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects with insulin resistance. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial.
  24. Fatty acid transport across the cell membrane: regulation by fatty acid transporters.
  25. The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition. Mitochondria
  26. Mitochondria.
  27. Magnesium regulation of the glycolytic pathway and the enzymes involved.
  28. Fat burning: Beta Oxidation
  29. Section: “ELEMENTS OF MAGNESIUM BIOLOGY” Subsection: 1.13 Synthesis and activity of enzymes
  30. ATP production: Oxidative phosphorylation
  32. Chemical mechanism of ATP synthase. Magnesium plays a pivotal role in formation of the transition state where ATP is synthesized from ADP and inorganic phosphate.
  33. Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
  34. Magnesium Intake in Relation to Systemic Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and the Incidence of Diabetes
  35. Pubchem: MgATP
  36. Magnesium in biology (Mg-ATP)
  37. Magnesium metabolism. A review with special reference to the relationship between intracellular content and serum levels.
  38. The role of phosphorylcreatine and creatine in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration in human skeletal muscle
  39. Effects of Ca, Mag, and EDTA on Creatine Kinase Activity in Cerebrospinal Fluid
  40. Synergistic Effects of Magnesium and Creatine on Ergogenic Performance in Rats.
  41. Functions and effects of creatine in the central nervous system.
  42. Functional aspects of creatine kinase in brain.
  43. Increase of total creatine in human brain after oral supplementation of creatine-monohydrate.
  44. Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.
  45. Protective Effect of the Energy Precursor Creatine Against Toxicity of Glutamate and β-Amyloid in Rat Hippocampal Neurons
  46. The Creatine Kinase/Creatine Connection to Alzheimer’s Disease: CK Inactivation, APP-CK Complexes, and Focal Creatine Deposits file:///C:/Users/Matt/Downloads/035936.pdf
  47. Magnesium: its biologic significance.
  48. Magnesium dependence of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium transport.
  49. Effect of Magnesium on the Calcium-dependent Transient Kinetics of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum ATPase, Studied by Stopped Flow Fluorescence and Phosphorylation.
  50. Calcium efflux from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum: Effects of calcium and magnesium.
  51. The Binding of Calcium and Magnesium to Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Vesicles as Studied by Manganese Electron Paramagnetic Resonance.
  52. Magnesium Modulates Actin Binding and ADP Release in Myosin Motors
  53. Eukaryotic DNA helicases: essential enzymes for DNA transactions.
  54. DNA helicases: enzymes with essential roles in all aspects of DNA metabolism.
  55. A DNA helicase from human cells.
  56. Human DNA helicase V, a novel DNA unwinding enzyme from HeLa cells.
  57. Purification and properties of human DNA helicase VI.
  58. The linkage between magnesium binding and RNA folding.
  59. Bidentate RNA-magnesium clamps: on the origin of the special role of magnesium in RNA folding.
  60. A thermodynamic framework for the magnesium-dependent folding of RNA.
  61. RNA-magnesium-protein interactions in large ribosomal subunit.
  62. A recurrent magnesium-binding motif provides a framework for the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center.
  63. Magnesium and potassium deficiency. Its diagnosis, occurrence and treatment in diuretic therapy and its consequences for growth, protein synthesis and growth factors.
  64. Insulin signalling to mTOR mediated by the Akt/PKB substrate PRAS40.
  65. mTOR signaling in growth control and disease.
  66. Activation of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) by Insulin Is Associated with Stimulation of 4EBP1 Binding to Dimeric mTOR Complex 1.
  67. The regulation of energy metabolism and the IGF-1/mTOR pathways by the p53 protein.
  68. Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) Inversely Regulates Atrophy-induced Genes via the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) Pathway.
  69. Regulation of skeletal muscle growth by the IGF1-Akt/PKB pathway: insights from genetic models.
  70. Conservative Growth Hormone/IGF-1 and mTOR Signaling Pathways as a Target for Aging and Cancer Prevention: Do We Really Have an Antiaging Drug.
  71. The rapid activation of protein synthesis by growth hormone requires signaling through mTOR.
  72. The rapid activation of protein synthesis by growth hormone requires signaling through mTOR.
  73. Leucine Regulates Translation Initiation of Protein Synthesis in Skeletal Muscle after Exercise.
  74. The mTOR pathway in the control of protein synthesis.
  75. Deconvoluting mTOR biology.
  77. Signalling to translation: how signal transduction pathways control the protein synthetic machinery.
  78. The role of mTOR signaling in the regulation of protein synthesis and muscle mass during immobilization in mice.
  79. Nutrition and muscle protein synthesis: a descriptive review.
  80. Autophagy: process and function.
  81. Autophagy: cellular and molecular mechanisms.
  82. mTOR regulation of autophagy.
  83. Regulation of autophagy by mTOR-dependent and mTOR-independent pathways: autophagy dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases and therapeutic application of autophagy enhancers.
  84. AMPK and mTOR regulate autophagy through direct phosphorylation of Ulk1.
  85. mTOR: a pharmacologic target for autophagy regulation.
  86. Roles of the mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR, in controlling ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis.
  87. Coordinate regulation of ribosome biogenesis and function by the ribosomal protein S6 kinase, a key mediator of mTOR function.
  88. Regulation of Ribosome Biogenesis by the Rapamycin-sensitive TOR-signaling Pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  89. Daily magnesium fluxes regulate cellular timekeeping and energy balance.
  90. Upstream and downstream of mTOR.
  91. ATP-competitive inhibitors of mTOR: an update.
  92. Development of ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitors.
  93. Magnesium, zinc, and chromium nutrition and athletic performance.
  94. Nutrition and Athletic Performance.
  95. Magnesium and exercise.
  96. Minerals: exercise performance and supplementation in athletes.
  97. Magnesium sulfate enhances exercise performance and manipulates dynamic changes in peripheral glucose utilization.
  98. Dietary Magnesium Depletion Affects Metabolic Responses during Submaximal Exercise in Postmenopausal Women.
  99. Effects of magnesium on exercise performance and plasma glucose and lactate concentrations in rats using a novel blood-sampling technique.
  100. Effects of magnesium supplementation on blood parameters of athletes at rest and after exercise.
  101. On the Significance of Magnesium in Extreme Physical Stress.
  102. Effects of magnesium supplementation on maximal and submaximal effort.
  103. Magnesium metabolism and deficiency.
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  106. Vitamin and mineral status: effects on physical performance.
  107. Magnesium Enhances Exercise Performance via Increasing Glucose Availability in the Blood, Muscle, and Brain during Exercise.
  108. Effect of magnesium supplementation on strength training in humans.
  109. The effect of acute vs chronic magnesium supplementation on exercise and recovery on resistance exercise, blood pressure and total peripheral resistance on normotensive adults.
  110. Magnesium and anabolic hormones in older men.
  111. Biochemistry. 5th edition. Section 26.4Important Derivatives of Cholesterol Include Bile Salts and Steroid Hormones.
  112. Hormonal regulation of cytochrome P450 enzymes, cholesterol side-chain cleavage and 17 alpha-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase in Leydig cells.
  113. Consider Magnesium Homeostasis: III: Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Drug Toxicity.
  114. The Effect of a Marathon Run on Plasma and Urine Mineral and Metal Concentrations.
  115. Update on the relationship between magnesium and exercise.
  116. L. R. Brilla and V. P. Lombardi, “Magnesium in sports physiology and performance,” in Sports Nutrition: Minerals and Electrolytes. An American Chemical Society Monograph, C. V. Kies and J. A. Driskell, Eds., pp. 139–177, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 1995. View at Google Scholar
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  118. The time course for elevated muscle protein synthesis following heavy resistance exercise.
  119. Magnesium Supplementation Diminishes Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte DNA Oxidative Damage in Athletes and Sedentary Young Man.