Magnesium & Muscles

Discover magnesium's central role in all 6 major aspects of the muscular system, and how a highly active lifestyle with low magnesium can damage health.

  1. Converting fats and carbs into muscle fuel is magnesium-dependent.[1]
  2. The creatine system in all nerves and muscles is magnesium-dependent.[4,5]
  3. Muscular contraction & relaxation is magnesium-dependent.[2]
  4. The activation of our muscles via our nerves is magnesium-dependent.[3]
  5. The process of building muscle is magnesium-dependent.[1]
  6. Making testosterone is impossible without magnesium, and magnesium raises innate production of performance-enhancing hormones.[6,7]
  7. Intense exercise while magnesium-deficient can damage health.
  8. Solutions to restore magnesium & promote better performance & health.
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Magnesium & Muscles

Discover magnesium's central role in all 6 major aspects of the muscular system, and how a highly active lifestyle with low magnesium can damage health.

  1. Converting fats and carbs into muscle fuel is magnesium-dependent.[1]
  2. The creatine system in all nerves and muscles is magnesium-dependent.[4,5]
  3. Muscular contraction & relaxation is magnesium-dependent.[2]
  4. The activation of our muscles via our nerves is magnesium-dependent.[3]
  5. The process of building muscle is magnesium-dependent.[1]
  6. Making testosterone is impossible without magnesium, and magnesium raises innate production of performance-enhancing hormones.[6,7]
  7. Intense exercise while magnesium-deficient can damage health.
  8. Solutions to restore magnesium & promote better performance & health.
Let's Dive In!

1. Magnesium fuels muscles:

2. Magnesium & creatine:

3. Magnesium and muscle contraction & relaxation:

4. Magnesium activates our muscles:

5. Magnesium builds & repairs muscle:

6. Magnesium, performance & hormones:

7. Exercise, magnesium deficiency & disease:

8. Solutions to restore magnesium & improve performance & health.

++ Scientific References

Video References:

v1: All visuals/digital animation/footage have been taken from Microbiotic Youtube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCza9xSRDXF2R49a5iWKkT-g  We thank them for their phenomenal work!

Studies:

  1. Biochemistry of magnesium  http://www.uwm.edu.pl/jold/poj1532010/jurnal-16.pdf
  2. Magnesium and the regulation of muscle contraction.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7286246
  3. Magnesium in the Central Nervous System https://www.adelaide.edu.au/press/titles/magnesium/magnesium-ebook.pdf
  4. Advanced Human Nutrition. (pg 344, creatine kinase is magnesium-dependent)  https://books.google.ca/books?id=s4GEAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA344&lpg=PA344&dq=creatine+kinase+magnesium+dependent&source=bl&ots=56GcBb71rz&sig=mrXQ_lUriYCvkOOJnRFTlSVdEBU&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjrj8eTvtXMAhUl1oMKHapDDn0Q6AEINzAE#v=onepage&q=creatine%20kinase%20magnesium%20dependent&f=false
  5. Magnesium-creatine supplementation effects on body water. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14506619
  6. Effects of magnesium supplementation on testosterone levels of athletes and sedentary subjects at rest and after exhaustion. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20352370
  7. The effects of magnesium supplementation on thyroid hormones of sedentars and Tae-Kwon-Do sportsperson at resting and exhaustion. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17984925
  8. New experimental and clinical data on the relationship between magnesium and sport. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2133629
  9. Magnesium and muscle performance in older persons: the InCHIANTI study.  http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/84/2/419.full
  10. Adenosine triphosphate. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine_triphosphate
  11. Magnesium basics. http://ckj.oxfordjournals.org/content/5/Suppl_1/i3.full
  12. The linkage between magnesium binding and RNA folding. (Insulin creation is magnesium dependent):  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11955006
  13. Bidentate RNA-magnesium clamps: on the origin of the special role of magnesium in RNA folding. (Insulin creation is magnesium dependent): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21173199
  14. A thermodynamic framework for the magnesium-dependent folding of RNA. (Insulin creation is magnesium dependent):  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12717727
  15. RNA-magnesium-protein interactions in large ribosomal subunit. (Insulin creation is magnesium dependent):  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22712611
  16. A recurrent magnesium-binding motif provides a framework for the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center. (Insulin creation is magnesium dependent):  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19279186
  17. Magnesium improves the beta-cell function to compensate variation of insulin sensitivity: double-blind, randomized clinical trial.(While magnesium’s role in the beta cell’s actual release of insulin is less established than its role in the beta cells creating insulin, this study makes ground on the overall impact of magnesium on beta cells).  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21241290
  18. Separate effects of Mg2+, MgATP, and ATP4- on the kinetic mechanism for insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2157363
  19. Role of divalent metals in the activation and regulation of insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2847822
  20. Substitution Studies of the Second Divalent Metal Cation Requirement of Protein Tyrosine Kinase CSK http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/bi982793w
  21. Intracellular magnesium and insulin resistance. (Insulin’s function is magnesium dependent):  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15319146
  22. Magnesium in Human Health and Disease. (Insulin’s function is magnesium dependent): http://www.springer.com/gp/book/9781627030434  or  see this excerpt:    https://books.google.ca/books?id=iUCx1dwWr7kC&pg=PA132&lpg=PA132&dq=tyrosine+kinase+Mg&source=bl&ots=y2ITN0DdKo&sig=d9F3WRCchZ2_2wQhvW9fe2faqtk&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj7jJ3fxdTMAhVM1oMKHQDFAKkQ6AEIYzAJ#v=onepage&q=tyrosine%20kinase%20Mg&f=false
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  28. Fat burning: Beta Oxidation  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta_oxidation
  29. Section: “ELEMENTS OF MAGNESIUM BIOLOGY” Subsection: 1.13 Synthesis and activity of enzymes http://www.mgwater.com/durex01.shtml
  30. ATP production: Oxidative phosphorylation https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxidative_phosphorylation
  31. THE EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCY ON OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION http://www.jbc.org/content/228/2/573.full.pdf
  32. Chemical mechanism of ATP synthase. Magnesium plays a pivotal role in formation of the transition state where ATP is synthesized from ADP and inorganic phosphate.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10506126
  33. Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21868780
  34. Magnesium Intake in Relation to Systemic Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and the Incidence of Diabetes http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/33/12/2604.abstract?ijkey=f923c1120dc6636d93fa39d29c797bee45949288&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
  35. Pubchem: MgATP  https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/15126#section=Top
  36. Magnesium in biology (Mg-ATP)  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnesium_in_biology
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  38. The role of phosphorylcreatine and creatine in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration in human skeletal muscle http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2278998/
  39. Effects of Ca, Mag, and EDTA on Creatine Kinase Activity in Cerebrospinal Fluid http://www.clinchem.org/content/25/1/147.full.pdf
  40. Synergistic Effects of Magnesium and Creatine on Ergogenic Performance in Rats. http://jrnlappliedresearch.com/articles/Vol3Iss1/ASHMEAD.htm
  41. Functions and effects of creatine in the central nervous system. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18502307
  42. Functional aspects of creatine kinase in brain. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7805577
  43. Increase of total creatine in human brain after oral supplementation of creatine-monohydrate. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10484486
  44. Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1691485/
  45. Protective Effect of the Energy Precursor Creatine Against Toxicity of Glutamate and β-Amyloid in Rat Hippocampal Neurons http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1471-4159.2000.0741968.x/full
  46. The Creatine Kinase/Creatine Connection to Alzheimer’s Disease: CK Inactivation, APP-CK Complexes, and Focal Creatine Deposits file:///C:/Users/Matt/Downloads/035936.pdf
  47. Magnesium: its biologic significance. https://books.google.ca/books/about/Magnesium.html?id=fCqFAAAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y
  48. Magnesium dependence of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium transport. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6269901
  49. Effect of Magnesium on the Calcium-dependent Transient Kinetics of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum ATPase, Studied by Stopped Flow Fluorescence and Phosphorylation. http://www.jbc.org/content/258/7/4453.full.pdf
  50. Calcium efflux from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum: Effects of calcium and magnesium. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022282878903693
  51. The Binding of Calcium and Magnesium to Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Vesicles as Studied by Manganese Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1432-1033.1978.tb12017.x/pdf
  52. Magnesium Modulates Actin Binding and ADP Release in Myosin Motors http://www.jbc.org/content/early/2014/07/08/jbc.M114.562231
  53. Eukaryotic DNA helicases: essential enzymes for DNA transactions. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1330454
  54. DNA helicases: enzymes with essential roles in all aspects of DNA metabolism. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8141804
  55. A DNA helicase from human cells.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1702201
  56. Human DNA helicase V, a novel DNA unwinding enzyme from HeLa cells.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8389437
  57. Purification and properties of human DNA helicase VI.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7543199
  58. The linkage between magnesium binding and RNA folding.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11955006
  59. Bidentate RNA-magnesium clamps: on the origin of the special role of magnesium in RNA folding. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21173199
  60. A thermodynamic framework for the magnesium-dependent folding of RNA.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12717727
  61. RNA-magnesium-protein interactions in large ribosomal subunit.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22712611
  62. A recurrent magnesium-binding motif provides a framework for the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19279186
  63. Magnesium and potassium deficiency. Its diagnosis, occurrence and treatment in diuretic therapy and its consequences for growth, protein synthesis and growth factors. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8036903
  64. Insulin signalling to mTOR mediated by the Akt/PKB substrate PRAS40. http://www.nature.com/ncb/journal/v9/n3/full/ncb1547.html
  65. mTOR signaling in growth control and disease. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3331679/
  66. Activation of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) by Insulin Is Associated with Stimulation of 4EBP1 Binding to Dimeric mTOR Complex 1. http://www.jbc.org/content/281/34/24293.short
  67. The regulation of energy metabolism and the IGF-1/mTOR pathways by the p53 protein. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20399660
  68. Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) Inversely Regulates Atrophy-induced Genes via the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) Pathway. http://www.jbc.org/content/280/4/2737.short
  69. Regulation of skeletal muscle growth by the IGF1-Akt/PKB pathway: insights from genetic models. https://skeletalmusclejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2044-5040-1-4
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