Bones, Joints & Magnesium

Bones, Joints & Magnesium

This guide looks at magnesium’s roles in bone & joint health and why magnesium deficiency can lead to osteoporosis and other issues. We look at:

  1. Magnesium prevents stiff and brittle bones.
  2. Bone formation and repair requires magnesium.
  3. Magnesium regulates bone formation.
  4. Magnesium regulates calcium absorption.
  5. Magnesium deficiency leads to brittle bones and calcification.
  6. Solutions restore healthy magnesium levels to strengthen our bones.
Learn More

1. Magnesium prevents stiff and brittle bones:

2. Bone formation and repair requires magnesium:

3. Magnesium regulates bone formation:

4. a) Magnesium regulates calcium absorption:

4. b) Magnesium regulates calcium absorption:

5. Magnesium deficiency leads to brittle bones and calcification.:

6. Solutions restore magnesium levels and strengthen bones:

++ Scientific References

Video References:

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  3. Magnesium Supplementation and Bone Turnover.
  4. Influence of magnesium substitution on a collagen-apatite biomaterial on the production of a calcifying matrix by human osteoblasts.
  5. Daily oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in young adult males.
  6. [The interplay of magnesium and vitamin K2 on bone mineralization].
  7. Magnesium and Osteoporosis: Current State of Knowledge and Future Research Directions.
  8. Skeletal and hormonal effects of magnesium deficiency.
  9. Effect of short-term hypomagnesemia on the chemical and mechanical properties of rat bone.
  10. The effect of moderately and severely restricted dietary magnesium intakes on bone composition and bone metabolism in the rat.
  11. The role of magnesium in osteoporosis and idiopathic hypercalcaemia.
  12. The cell biology of osteoclast function.
  13. Major progress in understanding osteoclast function.
  14. Osteoclast Migration, Differentiation and Function.
  15. Perspectives on Osteoblast and Osteoclast Function.
  16. Osteoblasts and bone formation.
  17. Control of osteoblast function and regulation of bone mass.
  18. Osteoblast Differentiation and Mineralization.
  19. Buried alive: how osteoblasts become osteocytes.
  20. Function of osteocytes in bone.
  21. [Recent progress in studies on osteocytes–osteocytes and mechanical stress].
  22. Osteocyte and bone structure.
  23. Osteocytes, Mechanosensing and Wnt Signaling.
  24. Osteocyte signaling in bone.
  25. The bone microenvironment in metastasis; what is special about bone?
  26. Adenosine triphosphate.
  27. Adenosine and Bone Metabolism.
  28. Adenosine Triphosphate stimulates differentiation and mineralization in human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells.
  29. ATP and UTP at low concentrations strongly inhibit bone formation by osteoblasts: a novel role for the P2Y2 receptor in bone remodeling.
  30. Pubchem: MgATP
  31. Biochemistry of magnesium
  32. Magnesium in biology (Mg-ATP)
  33. Magnesium basics.
  35. Magnesium improves the beta-cell function to compensate variation of insulin sensitivity: double-blind, randomized clinical trial.(While magnesium’s role in the beta cell’s actual release of insulin is less established than its role in the beta cells creating insulin, this study makes ground on the overall impact of magnesium on beta cells).
  36. Separate effects of Mg2+, MgATP, and ATP4- on the kinetic mechanism for insulin receptor tyrosine kinase.
  37. Role of divalent metals in the activation and regulation of insulin receptor tyrosine kinase.
  38. Substitution Studies of the Second Divalent Metal Cation Requirement of Protein Tyrosine Kinase CSK.
  39. Intracellular magnesium and insulin resistance. (Insulin’s function is magnesium dependent):
  40. Magnesium in Human Health and Disease. (Insulin’s function is magnesium dependent):  or  see this excerpt:
  41. Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects with insulin resistance. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial.
  42. Fatty acid transport across the cell membrane: regulation by fatty acid transporters.
  43. Magnesium regulation of the glycolytic pathway and the enzymes involved.
  44. Fat burning: Beta Oxidation
  45. Section: “ELEMENTS OF MAGNESIUM BIOLOGY” Subsection: 1.13 Synthesis and activity of enzymes
  46. ATP production: Oxidative phosphorylation.
  48. Chemical mechanism of ATP synthase. Magnesium plays a pivotal role in formation of the transition state where ATP is synthesized from ADP and inorganic phosphate.
  49. Calcium inhibition of the ATP in equilibrium with [32P]Pi exchange and of net ATP synthesis catalyzed by bovine submitochondrial particles.
  50. The linkage between magnesium binding and RNA folding.
  51. Bidentate RNA-magnesium clamps: on the origin of the special role of magnesium in RNA folding.
  52. A thermodynamic framework for the magnesium-dependent folding of RNA.
  53. RNA-magnesium-protein interactions in large ribosomal subunit.
  54. A recurrent magnesium-binding motif provides a framework for the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center.
  55. ATP and adenosine act as a mitogen for osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1).
  56. Nitric oxide mediates low magnesium inhibition of osteoblast-like cell proliferation.
  57. Critical role of magnesium ions in DNA polymerase beta’s closing and active site assembly.
  58. Structural and catalytic chemistry of magnesium-dependent enzymes.
  59. ATP activates DNA synthesis by acting on P2X receptors in human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells.
  60. Magnesium directly stimulates osteoblast proliferation.
  61. Immunolocalization of RANKL is Increased and OPG Decreased During Dietary Magnesium Deficiency in the Rat.
  62. Effect of magnesium ion on human osteoblast activity.
  63. Magnesium Intake from Food and Supplements Is Associated with Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Older White Subjects.
  64. Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women.
  65. The relationship between magnesium and calciotropic hormones.
  66. Calcium regulation.
  67. [Hormones in bone metabolism. I. Calcitropic hormones].
  68. [Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin].
  69. [Hormonal regulation of bone metabolism].
  70. Effect of calcitonin on bone cell ultrastructure.
  71. Effects of calcitonin on bone quality and osteoblastic function.
  72. Calcitonin, the forgotten hormone: does it deserve to be forgotten?
  73. [Effects of calcitonin on osteoblast cell proliferation and OPG/RANKL expression: experiment with mouse osteoblasts].
  74. Magnesium Deficiency in the Pathogenesis of Disease. Early Roots of Cardiovascular, Skeletal, and Renal Abnormalities.
  76. Magnesium: A Key to Calcium Absorption.
  77. Induction of osteoclast formation by parathyroid hormone depends on an action on stromal cells.
  78. Effects of parathyroid hormone on osteoclasts in vivo.
  79. Parathyroid hormone temporal effects on bone formation and resorption.
  80. The roles of parathyroid hormone in bone remodeling: prospects for novel therapeutics.
  81. Magnesium and the parathyroid.
  82. Parathyroid hormone secretion in magnesium deficiency.
  83. Effect of magnesium on phosphorus and calcium metabolism.
  84. Magnesium modulates parathyroid hormone secretion and upregulates parathyroid receptor expression at moderately low calcium concentration.
  85. The Relationship between Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure and Vitamin D Status.
  86. Vitamin D: The “sunshine” vitamin.
  87. Vitamin D Metabolism, Mechanism of Action, and Clinical Applications.
  88. Cytochrome P450 enzymes in the bioactivation of vitamin D to its hormonal form (review).
  89. Overview of regulatory cytochrome P450 enzymes of the vitamin D pathway.
  90. Cytochromes P450 are essential players in the vitamin D signaling system.
  91. Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of vitamin D.
  92. Consider Magnesium Homeostasis: III: Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Drug Toxicity.
  93. Effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on calcium and magnesium absorption in the healthy human jejunum and ileum.
  94. Molecular mechanisms for regulation of intestinal calcium absorption by vitamin D and other factors.
  95. Molecular aspects of intestinal calcium absorption.
  96. [Calciotropic actions of parathyroid hormone and vitamin D-endocrine system].
  97. Low serum concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in human magnesium deficiency.
  98. Magnesium, vitamin D status and mortality: results from US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001 to 2006 and NHANES III.
  99. Magnesium deficit – overlooked cause of low vitamin D status?
  100. Calcium supplements with or without vitamin D and risk of cardiovascular events: reanalysis of the Women’s Health Initiative limited access dataset and meta-analysis.
  101. Should we prescribe calcium or vitamin D supplements to treat or prevent osteoporosis?
  102. Elevated brain lesion volumes in older adults who use calcium supplements: a cross-sectional clinical observational study.
  103. Magnesium: Nature’s physiologic calcium blocker.
  104. Prevention of osteoporosis: the calcium controversy.
  105. Cardiovascular effects of calcium supplementation.
  106. Calcium supplements and cardiovascular risk: 5 years on.
  107. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements.
  108. Cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis: Balancing risk management.
  109. The link between osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease.
  110. Ischemic heart disease is associated with lower cortical volumetric bone mineral density of distal radius.